Experimental evidence for the atomic hypothesis. Chemical compounds and their composition - introduction to nomenclature. Chemical reactions and stoichiometric calculations. (8 h)Solution chemistry - electrolytes and non-electrolytes. Colligative properties. Ideal and non-ideal solutions. Reactions in solution - redox, acid-base, precipitation, ionexchange. Colloids. (14 h)Properties of gases - Avogadro's hypothesis, the ideal gas law. Kinetic molecular theory. Gas mixtures. Solubility of gases. Gases at high pressure and low temperatures - critical phenomena. (14 h) ..
Solid State Structure: Order - spatial, orientational; Types of solids; Symmetry in crystals - primitive lattice vector – Wigner-Seitz cell - crystal systems - Bravais lattices - crystallographic point groups and space groups; X-ray diffraction - reciprocal lattice - Ewald construction - structure factor - crystal structure solution and refinement - common crystal structure motifs; Quasicrystals. (6 h)Defects and Nonstoichiometery: Point, line and plane defects; Intrinsic and extrinsic defects - vacancies, Schottky and Frenkel defects - charge compensation; Nonstoichiometry and defects - thermodynamic and structural aspects; Color centres. (3 h)Thermal Properties: Lattice vibrations - phonon spectrum; Lattice heat capacity; Thermal expansion; Thermal conductivity. (4 h)Electrical Properties: Free electron theory - electrical conductivity and Ohm's law - Hall effect; Band theory - band gap - metals and semiconductors - intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors; Hopping semiconductors; Semiconductor/metal transition; p-n junctions; Superconductors - Meissner effect - type I and II superconductors - isotope effect - basic concepts of BCS theory - manifestations of the energy gap - Josephson devices. (10 h)Magnetic Properties: Classification of magnetic materials; Langevin diamagnetism; Quantum theory of paramagnetism; Cooperative phenomena - ferro, antiferro and ferrimagnetism - magnetic domains and hysteresis; Superparamagnetism. (4 h)Optical Properties: Optical reflectance - plasmon frequency; Raman scattering in crystals; Photoconduction; Photo and electroluminescence; Lasers; Photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical effects. (3 h)General Concepts in Materials Synthesis: Phase diagrams; Preparation of pure materials; Nucleation and crystal growth; Crystal growth techniques; Zone refining. (2 h)Brief Introduction to Different Classes of Materials: High TC superconductors, Ionic conductors, Polymers, Liquid crystals, Molecular materials, Nanomaterials (8 h)