Authors: Murali Banavoth, M Madhuri, SB Krupanidhi
Keywords: Films, Substrates, Doping, Lattices, Photovoltaic cells, Steel, Annealing
Abstract: Thin films of CuIn1-xAlxSe2 (CIAS) were grown on the flexible 10 micrometer thin stainless steel substrates, by dc co-sputtering from the elemental cathodes, followed by annealing with modified selenization. CuInAl alloyed precursor films were selenized both by noble gas assisted Se vapor transport in a tubular furnace and vacuum evaporation of Se in an evaporation chamber. CIAS thin films were optimized for better adhesion. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the selenized films. The composition of CIAS films was varied by substituting In with Al in CuInSe2 (CIS) from 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.65 (x = Al/Al+In). Lattice parameters, average crystallite sizes, and compact density of the films, decreased when compared to CIS and (112) peak shifted to higher Bragg's angle, upon Al incorporation. The dislocation density and strain were found to increase with Al doping. Solar cells with SS/Mo/CIAS/CdS/iZnO:AZnO/Al configuration were fabricated and were tested for current-voltage characteristics for various `x' values, under Air Mass 1.5 Global one sun illumination. The best CIAS solar cell showed the efficiency of 6.8%, with x = 0.13, Eg = 1.17 eV, fill factor 45.04, and short circuit current density Jsc 30 mA/cm2.